Zhu Lab

Timothy C. Zhu, Ph.D.


Timothy C. Zhu, Ph.D.Lab Contact #: 215-573-4890

Lab Location:  8th Floor SCTR, 8-166




Lab Members

  • Andrea Dimofte (Lab Manager)
  • Weibing Yang (Postdoctoral Researcher)
  • Shivani Gupta (Research Specialist)
  • Yifeng Zhu (Research Assistant)


Institution and Location Degree Year Field of Study
Fudan University, Shanghai, China B.S. 1984 Electronic Engineering
Brown University, Providence, RI M.Sc. 1987 Physics
Brown University, Providence, RI M.Sc. 1988 Engineering
Brown University, Providence, RI Ph.D. 1992 Physics

1991 Sigma Xi, Brown University
1/1992 - 1/1994 Research Associate, Radiation Medicine, Brown University, Providence
1/1994-1/1998 Assistant Professor, Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL
1/1998-9/2003 Assistant Professor, Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Penn, Philadelphia, PA
9/2003- Present Associate Professor, Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Penn, Philadelphia, PA

  • Zhu TC, Finlay JC, and Hahn SM, “Determination of the Distribution of Light, Optical Properties, Drug Concentration, and Tissue Oxygenation in-vivo in Human Prostate during Motexafin Lutetium-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B Biology 79: 231-241 (2005).
  • Zhu TC, Dimofte A, Finlay JC, Stripp D, Busch T, Miles J, Whittington R, Malkowicz SB, Tochner Z, Glatstein E, Hahn SM, “Optical properties of Human Prostate at 732nm Measured in vivo during motexafin lutetium-mediated photodynamic therapy,” Photochem Photobiol. 81: 96-105 (2005).
  • Dimofte A, Finlay JC, Zhu TC, “A method for determination of the absorption and scattering properties interstitially in turbid media,” Phys Med Biol 50 2291-2311 (2005).
  • Wang HW, Zhu TC, Putt ME, Solonenko M, Metz J, Dimofte A, Miles J, Fraker DL, Glatstein E, Hahn SM, Yodh AG, “In-vivo broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration depth, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J Bio Med Opt 10: 1-13 (2005).
  • Finlay JC, Zhu TC, Dimofte A, Stripp D, Malkowicz SB, Whittington R, Miles J, Glatstein E, Hahn SM, “In vivo measurement of fluorescence emission in the human prostate during photodynamic therapy,” Proc. SPIE 5689:299-310 (2005).
  • Altschuler MD, Zhu TC, Jun Li, Hahn SM, “Optimization of light sources for prostate photodynamic therapy,” Proc. SPIE 5689:186-197 (2005).
  • Zhu TC, Dimofte A, Finlay JC, Glatstein E, Hahn SM, “Detector Calibration factor for interstitial in-vivo light dosimetry using isotropic detectors with scattering tip,” Proc. SPIE 5689:174-185 (2005).
  • Zhu TC, Bjarngard BE, Xiao Y, and Bieda M, “Output ratio in air for MLC shaped irregular fields,” Med Phys 31:2480-2490 2004.
  • Friedberg, JS, Mick R, Steveson JP, Zhu T, Busch TM, Shin D, Smith D, Culligan M, Dimofte A, Glatstein E, and Hahn SM, “A Phase II Trial of Pleural Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) and Surgery for Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) with Pleural Spread,” Journal of Clinical Oncology 22: 2192-2201 2004.
  • Saini AS and Zhu TC, “Dose Rate and SDD Dependence of Commercially Available Diode Detectors” Med Phys 31: 914-924 2004. 
  • Das IJ and Zhu TC, “Thermal and temporal response of ionization chambers in radiation dosimetry” Med Phys 31: 573-578 2004.
  • Finlay JC, Zhu TC, Dimofte A, Stripp D, Malkowicz SB, Whittington R, Miles J, Glatstein E, Hahn SM, “In vivo determination of the absorption and scattering spectra of the human prostate during photodynamic therapy,” Proc. SPIE 5315:132-142 (2004).
  • Zhu TC, JC Finlay, Dimofte A, Hahn SM, “Light Dosimetry at Tissue Surfaces for Oblique Incident Circular Fields,” Proc. SPIE 5315:113-124 (2004).
  • Stripp DC, Mick R, Zhu TC, Whittington R, Smith D, Dimofte A, Finlay JC, Miles J, Busch TM, Shin D, Kachur A, Tochner ZA, Malkowicz SB, Glatstein E, Hahn SM, “Phase I trial of motexafin-lutetium-mediated interstitial photodynamic therapy in patients with locally recurrent prostate cancer, SPIE 5315: 88-99 (2004).
  • Zhu TC, Hahn SM, Kapatkin AS, Dimofte A, Rodriguez CE, Vulcan TG, Glatstein E, and His RA, “In vivo Optical Properties of Normal Canine Prostate at 732 nm Using motexafin lutetium-mediated photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77:81-88 2003.
  • Shi J, Simon WE, and Zhu TC, “Modeling the instantaneous dose rate dependence of radiation diode detectors,” Med Phys 30:2509-2519 2003.
  • Freidberg JS, Mick R, Stevenson J, Metz J, Zhu T, Buyske J, Sterman D, Pass H, Glatstein E, and Hahn SM “A Phase I Study of Foscan-mediated Photodynamic Therapy and Surgery in patients with mesothelioma,” Ann Thorac Surg. 75:952-959 2003.
  • Zhu TC and Bjarngard BE, “Head-scatter Off-axis for Megavoltage X-rays,” Med Phys 30:533-543 2003.
  • Wang H, Zhu TC, Solonenko M, Hahn SM, Metz JM, Dimofte A, Miles J, Yodh AG, “Measurements of penetration depth, oxygenation, and drug concentration using broadband absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy in human tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” Proc. SPIE 4952:68-75 (2003). 
  • Zhu TC, Dimofte A, Hahn SM, Lustig RA, “Light Dosimetry at Tissue Surfaces for Small Circular Fields,” Proc. SPIE 4952:56-67 (2003).
  • Dimofte A, Zhu TC, Hahn SM, Lustig RA, “In-vivo Light Dosimetry for Metexafin Lutetium-mediated PDT of Recurrent Breast Cancer,” Lasers Surg Med 31:305-312 2002.Saini AJ and Zhu TC, “Temperature dependence of commercially available Diode Detectors” Med Phys 29:622-630, 2002.
  • Solonenko M, Cheung R, Busch TM, Kachur A, Griffin GM, Vulcan T, Zhu TC, Wang HW, Hahn S, and Yodh AG, “In-Vivo Reflectance measurement of motexafin Lutetium uptake, optical properties, and oxygenation of canine large bowels, kidneys, and prostates,” Phys Med Biol 47:857- 873, 2002.
  • Zhu TC, Dimofte A, Friedberg JS, Miles J, Metz J, Glatstein E, Hahn SM, “The Ratio of the Spherical and Flat Detectors at Tissue Surfaces During Pleural Photodynamic Therapy,” Proc. SPIE 4612: 102-113 (2002). 
  • Zhu TC, Das IJ and Bjarngard BE, “Characteristics of Bremsstrahlung in Electron Beams,” Med Phys 28: 1352-1358, 2001.
  • Zhu TC, Bjarngard BE, Xiao Y and Yang CJ, “Modeling the output Ratio in air for Megavoltage Photon Beams,” Med Phys 28: 925-937, 2001.
  • Griffen G, Zhu T, Solonenko M, Busch T, Kapakin A, Yodh A, Bauer T, Fraker D and HAHN SM, “Canine study of Motexafin Lutetium-Mediated Intraperitoneal Photodynamic Therapy,” Clin Cancer Res 7:374-381, 2001.
  • Hsi RA, Kapatkin A, Strandberg J, Zhu T, Vulcan T, Solonenko M, Rodriguez C, Saunders M, Mason N and Hahn S, “Photodynamic Therapy in the Canine Prostate using Lutetium Texaphyrin,” Clin Cancer Res 7:651-660, 2001.
  • Hendren SK, Hahn SM, Spitz, FR, Bauer TW, Rubin SC, Zhu TC, Glatstein E and Fraker DL, “Phase II Trial of Debulking Surgery and Photodynamic Therapy for Disseminated Intraperitoneal Tumors,” Ann Surg Oncol 8:65-71, 2001.
  • Metz JM, Tochner Z, Hahn S, Smith D, Zhu T, Friedberg JS, Fraker D, and Glatstein E, “Clinical Applications for photodynamic therapy in oncology,” Proc. SPIE 4248: 56-63 (2001).
  • Vulcan TG, Zhu TC, Rodriguez CE, His RA, Fraker DL, Baas P, Murrer LHP, Star WM, Glatstein E, Yodh AG, and Hahn SM, “Comparison between isotropic and nonisotropic dosimetry systems during intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Surg Med, 26:292-301, 2000.
  • Nathu RM, Mancuso AA, Zhu TC, and Mendenhall WM: Impact of primary tumor volume on local control for squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx. Head & Neck 22, 1-5, 2000.
  • Hahn SM, Fraker DL, Zhu TC, Yodh AG, Rodriguez CE, Smith D, Currens A, and Glatstein E, “Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis,” Proc. SPIE 3909: 7-14 (2000).
  • Kim S, Palta JR and Zhu TC. A generalized solution for the calculation of in-air output factors in irregular fields. Med Phys 25, 1692-1701, 1998.
  • Kim S, Palta JP and Zhu TC. the equivalent square concept for the head scatter factor based on scatter from flattening filter Phys. Med Biol 43, 1593-1604, 1998.
  • Kim S, Liu CR, Zhu TC and Palta JR. photon beam skin dose analyses for different clinical setups. Med Phys 25, 860-866, 1998.
  • Zhu TC and Palta JR: Contaminating electron dose in a megavoltage photon. Med Phys 25, 12-19, 1998
  • Kim S, Zhu TC and Palta JR. An equivalent square formula for determining head scatter factors of rectangular fields. Med Phys 24:1770-1774, 1997.
  • Glicksman AS, Wanebo H, Slotman G, Liu L, Landmann C, Clark J, Zhu TC, Lohri A and Probst R. concurrent platinum Based Chemotherapy and Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy with late Intensification in Advanced Head and Neck Cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 39, 721-729, 1997.
  • Liu R, Li ZF, Zhu TC and Palta JR,. “Commissioning the enhanced dynamic wedge on a ROCS RTP system,” Med Dosim 22:231-236, 1997.
  • Zhu TC, Ding L, Liu CR, Palta JR, Simon WE and Shi J, “Performance Evaluation of a Diode Detector Array for Enhanced Dynamic Wedge Dosimetry,” Med Phys 24:1173-1180, 1997.
  • Morath CJ, Tas G, Zhu TC, Maris HJ, “Phonon attenuation in glasses studied by picosecond ultrasonics,” Physica B 220: 296-298, 1996.
  • Liu CR, Zhu TC and Palta JR. Characterizing output for dynamic wedges. Med Phys 23:1213 1218, 1996.
  • Hannalah D, Zhu TC and Bjarngard BE. Electron-disequilibrium effects for scattered photons. Med Phys 23:1867-1871, 1996.
  • Ceberg CP, Bjarngard BE and Zhu TC. Experimental determination of the dose kernel in high energy x-ray beams. Med Phys 23:503-511, 1996.
  • Bjarngard BE, Zhu TC and Ceberg CP. Tissue-phantom ratios from percentage depth doses. Med Phys 23:629-634, 1996.
  • Zhu TC, Bjarngard BE and Shackford H. X-ray source and the output factor. Med Phys 22:793 798, 1995.
  • Zhu TC and Bjarngard BE. The fraction of photons undergoing head scatter in x-ray beams. Phys Med Biol 40: 1127-1134, 1995.
  • Zhu TC and Bjarngard BE. Scattered photon from wedges in high-energy x-ray beams. Med Phys 22: 1339-1342, 1995.
  • Bjarngard BE, Vadash P and Zhu TC. Doses near the surface in high-energy x-ray beams. Med Phys 22: 465-468, 1995.
  • Zhu TC and Bjarngard BE. The head-scatter factor for small field sizes. Med Phys 21:65-68, 1994.
  • Zhu TC and Manbeck K, “CT reconstruction of x-ray source profile of a medical accelerator,” Proc. SPIE 2132: 242€“253 (1994).
  • Zhu TC, Maris HJ and Tauc J. Attenuation of longitudinal acoustic phonons in amorphous Si02 at frequencies p to 440 GHz. Phys Rev B 44:4281, 1991.
  • Zhu C, Maris HJ and Tauc J. Picosecond optics studies of high frequency longitudinal acoustic phonons in glasses. Phonon 498, 1989 (World, Singapore,1990).

C. Research Support

Ongoing Research Support

DAMD17-03-1-0132 (T. Zhu, PI)DOD
Real-time dosimetry and Optimization of Prostate Photodynamic TherapyThe objective is to develop an integrated system for light dosimetry and delivery for ultrasound guided photodynamic therapy. The emphasis is optimization algorithms and a computerized multi-channel light delivery. Dr. Zhu is the PI of this project.

1 P01 CA87971-01A1 (E. Glatstein, PI) NIH
Photodynamic Therapy for Intraperitoneal Neoplastic DiseasesThe goal of this revised P01 is to study the three major components of PDT (photosensitizer, oxygen and light) to optimize treatment of patients with abdominal sarcomas, ovarian and gastrointestinal carcinomas. Dr. Zhu is core leader of the physics core component.

Completed Research Support

Sub to STTR Phase II Grant R42 RR12259-02A1 (RA Hsi, PI) NIH
Endoscopic Light Source for PDTThe objective is to study photodynamic therapy as it relates to Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal cancer. Dr. Zhu is a co-investigator responsible for light dosimetry

5 R21 CA88064-02 (S. Hahn, PI) NIH
6/1/00 - 5/31/02
Phase I Trial of PDT in Patients with Prostate CarcinomaThe broad, long-term objective of this proposal is to develop photodynamic therapy as a local treatment for patients with prostate cancer. The research design is a phase I, dose escalation clinical trial of PDT using motexafin lutetium and 730 nm light in patients with recurrent prostate cancer who have failed radiotherapy. Dr. Zhu is a co-investigator responsible for clinical aspect of PDT physics.

(T. Zhu, PI) Helax AB
Sponsored Research Agreement Between Helax AB and Trustees of the Univ. of PennsylvaniaThe goal of this sponsored research is to study the three components of radiation therapy treatment planning (QA of photon beam data, QA of electron beam data, and image fusion between PET and CT/MR images) to improve the accuracy of radiation dose delivery.